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Eye Movement disorders;
In this series, the purpose and nomenclature of eye movements are described, with the anatomical pathways generating and controlling the cortically-driven movements –- saccades and smooth pursuit in horizontal gaze, upgaze and downgaze -- discussed in detail. The importance of each of the three saccadic generators in the cortex, and of the cortical regions necessary for pursuit is identified. The pathology of these pathways is summarized, providing evidence of their clinical relevance. These pathological states include low-gain pursuit, slow-to-no saccade syndrome among others. Video clips of patients are used for visual demonstration of particular eye movement abnormalities, specifically those that result from a cerebral hemispherectomy, frontal lobe lesion, from progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and from central nervous system whipples disease.
KEY WORDS: saccades, smooth pursuit, cerebral control of eye movements, gaze, frontal eye fields, medial superior temporal area, medial temporal visual area, extra-striate visual areas, visual stimulation of eye movement, optokinetic nystagmus, gain, low-gain pursuit, slow-to-no saccade syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, CNS whipples
The video clips are offered in Real Media, Quicktime, and Windows Media formats. You must have the appropriate player installed on your computer to view the video.
The formats available for this video are the following, ordered as they appear below: Real Media (Non-Download), Quicktime (Download), Windows Media (Non-Download), and Windows Media (Download).
To download the video onto your computer for offline viewing:
1) Click on an icon with the "DL" notation
2) Right-click ( Ctrl-click on Mac ) on the red Download link when the window opens and choose "Save..." or "Download..."
3) Choose location to save in dialog box that appears.
4) Wait for file to download.
5) Now the video is stored on your computer and you can play it any time, with no Internet connection required.
To view the video without downloading to your computer, choose and click on an icon WITHOUT a "DL" notation.
Robert B. Daroff, MD, Professor of Neurology, School of Medicine, CASE Western Reserve University, University Hospitals - Case Medical Center
Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library, University of Utah