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Eye Movement Disorders;
Lesions of the cerebellum can result in a variety of eye movement disorders, including saccadic intrusions and oscillations, such as ocular dysmetria, as well as nystagmus, gaze palsies, and dysfunction of the vestibular ocular reflex. In this series of videos, these disorders are discussed in relation to the relevant cerebellar and brainstem anatomy. Further, a more detailed look at both nystagmus and how saccades are initiated and maintained is provided, with mention of the cerebellum’s role in these eye movements. Specifically, the origin of the pulse-step firing from the burst cells and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, which is necessary to produce a saccade, as well as the tonic inhibition of the burst cells’ firing by the pause cells are detailed. Ocular flutter, a disorder of the pause cells, is used to illustrate these cells’ clinical significance.
KEYWORDS: cerebellar control of eye movements, nystagmus, upbeat nystagmus, downbeat nystagmus, Alexander’s Law, burst cells, nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, pause cells, nucleus raphe interpositus, ocular palatal myoclonus, ocular dysmetria, ocular flutter
The video clips are offered in Real Media, Quicktime, and Windows Media formats. You must have the appropriate player installed on your computer to view the video.
The formats available for this video are the following, ordered as they appear below: Real Media (Non-Download), Quicktime (Download), Windows Media (Non-Download), and Windows Media (Download).
To download the video onto your computer for offline viewing:
1) Click on an icon with the "DL" notation
2) Right-click ( Ctrl-click on Mac ) on the red Download link when the window opens and choose "Save..." or "Download..."
3) Choose location to save in dialog box that appears.
4) Wait for file to download.
5) Now the video is stored on your computer and you can play it any time, with no Internet connection required.
To view the video without downloading to your computer, choose and click on an icon WITHOUT a "DL" notation.
Robert B. Daroff, MD, Professor of Neurology, School of Medicine, CASE Western Reserve University, University Hospitals - Case Medical Center
Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library, University of Utah