A dynamic systems approach to infant facial action
What does it mean when a baby smiles? Is it an expression of enjoyment, a signal to a partner that rewards effective caretaking, or simply a muscular contraction? Do physically different types of smiles indicate different things? Should the social context in which an infant smiles inform our understanding of the smile? To address these questions, we apply insights and ideas from a dynamic systems perspective to anatomical, social interactive, and neurophysiological data on the development of infant facial action (Fogel, 1993; Fogel & Thelen, 1987; Thelen, 1995; Thelen & Smith, 1994).
Cambridge University Press
Messinger, D. S. Fogel, A. D., & Dickson, L. K. (1997). Dynamic systems approach to infant facial action in J. Russell (Ed.). The psychology of facial expression, 205-226.
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